Ijlg ' INDIAN CASTE. la others. Thus, Mafliura Is a great centre of the stone-cutter's art; but the men who practise It belong to different ranks, and have not adopted the distinc- tive trade-name of sanff-tardtk, which seems to be recognized in Aligarh, Ha- mfrpuiy and Kumaon. Again3 in every market town there are a number of weighmen, who, no doubt, in each place have special guild regulations of their own ; bat only in Banaras do they appear as a distinct caste, with the name of palle-ddrs. So too at' Saharanpur some fruit-sellers—whose trade, it may be presumed, has been encouraged by the large public garden at that station—have separated themselves .from the common herd o£ ICunjrds, or ' costermongers,' and decorated their small community with the Persian title of MewafarosL As might be expected, this disintegration of society and adoption of a novel nomenclature prevails most extensively among the lower orders, where the associations connected with the old name that is discarded are of an unpleasant nature. But even in the higher classes, where the generic title is one of honour, it is frequently superseded in common parlance by one that is more dis- tinctive; though it may be of less favourable import. Thus, among Brahmans a BoLra sub-caste is in course of formation, and a Chaube of the Mathura branch, when settled elsewhere, is invariably styled neither Brahman nor Chaube, but Mathuriya. Illustrations might be multiplied indefinitely ; but the few now cited are sufficient to prove how caste subdivisions are formed in the present day, and to suggest how they originated in the first instance.